What is IoT (Internet of Things)? IoT Architecture Explained

What is IoT (Internet of Things)? IoT Architecture Explained

Internet of things (IoT):

The internet of things is a system of the following. They are,

  • Interrelated computing devices.
  • Mechanical.
  • Digital machines.
  • Objects.
  • Animals or people that will provide with the unique identifiers.

The ability to transfer data over a network. This is possible without requiring human-to-human. Also, without requiring human-to-computer interaction.

A thing in the internet of things can be a person with the following. They are,

  • Heart monitor implant.
  • A farm animal with a biochip transponder.
  • An automobile that has built-in sensors.

This is to alert the driver. This is when tire pressure is low or any other natural. Also, man-made object that can assign an IP address. Also, it can transfer the data over a network.

Increasingly, industries in a variety of industries are using IoT. This is to operate more efficiently. Also, better understand customers to deliver enhanced customer service. This will improve decision-making as well as to increase the value of the business.

How does IoT Works?


Internet of Things is a combination of the following three. They are,

  1. SENSORS as well as ACTUATORS:

Sensors measure physical quantities. They are as follows. 

  • Temperature.
  • Sound.
  • Moisture.
  • Vibrations, etc.

It will convert the physical quantity into an electrical quantity. These Converted signals pass to the system and then system acts accordingly.




The received signals will upload on the network. This is possible by using the different communication media. It will include the following. They are,

  • Wi-Fi.
  • Bluetooth or BLE.
  • LoRaWAN.
  • LTE, and many more.
  1. PEOPLE as well as PROCESS:

People and Process are an important part of IoT. Networked inputs are then combined into a bidirectional system. This will integrate the data, people as well as processes. This is for the better decision making.

User can access its result on his mobile or the web app.

Why IoT is important?

The internet of things helps people live and work smarter. Also, it is used to gain complete control over their lives. In addition to offering smart devices to automate homes. IoT is very essential to the business. IoT will provide the businesses with a real-time look. This will investigate the following. They are,

  • How their companies’ systems really work?
  • Delivering insights into everything? This is from the performance of machines to supply chain. 
  • Logistics operations.

IoT enable the companies to automate processes & reduce labor costs. It also cuts down on waste. Also, it will improve the service delivery. This will make it less expensive to manufacture. Also, it will deliver goods & offer transparency into customer transactions. 

IoT touches every industry, including healthcare, finance, retail and manufacturing. Smart cities help citizens for the following. They are,

  • Reduce waste.
  • Energy consumption.
  • Connected sensors.

These are even used in the farming. This is to help the monitor crop and cattle yields and predict growth patterns.

IoT is one of the most important technologies of everyday life. It will continue to pick up steam as more businesses realize. The potential of connected devices is to keep them competitive.

IoT Architecture:


The above figure is self-explanatory about IoT Architecture. As shown in the figure,

Internet of things will base on the four simple building blocks. They are,



  1. Sensors.
  2. Internet of Things (IoT) framework & gateway.
  3. Cloud server.
  4. Mobile app.

As the name suggests, Sensors sense the data. This data store at Cloud server and intelligent decisions take place here. IoT gateway is a carrier for this data. Finally, Mobile apps for user to see and access data. Let us see this in detail.


Sensors are everywhere, sensors sense data from the atmosphere or place. The eg. temperature sensor senses temperature. This is from the room as well as shares it through IoT gateway.

Sensors will sniff a wide variety of information. This ranging from Location, Weather/Environment conditions & running machine. Also, from the human body, engine maintenance data to health essentials of a vehicle.

IoT Gateways & frameworks:

As the name rightly explains, it is a gateway to the internet. This is for all the things/devices that we want to interact with. Gateways act as a carrier. It will be between the internal network of sensor nodes. Especially with the external Internet or World Wide Web.

They do this by collecting the data from sensor nodes. Also, transmitting them to the internet infrastructure.

Cloud server:

The data transmitted through the gateway will store. Also, processed securely within the cloud server i.e. in data centers.  This processed data is then used to perform intelligent actions. That will make all our devices Smart Devices. In the cloud, all analytics & decision-making happen considering user comfort.

Mobile applications:

The intuitive mobile apps will help end users. This is to control as well as monitor their devices. This will be from the remote locations.

These apps push important information. Especially from the cloud on your smartphones, tablets.

After analytics, Information is in the form of graphs, bars and in pi-diagram. Also, it will display to the user in a user-friendly manner.

From mobile app, we can send a command to sensors. This is to change the default values. For Example: changing the default temperature of air conditioner and many more.

Benefits of IoT:

The internet of things offers several benefits to industries. This will enable them to the following. They are,

  • Monitor their overall business processes.
  • Improve the customer experience.
  • Save time as well as money.
  • Enhance employee productivity.
  • Integrate and adapt business models.
  • Make better business decisions. 
  • Generate more revenue.

IoT encourages the companies. This is to rethink the ways they approach the following. They are,

  • Their businesses.
  • Industries as well as markets.
  • It will give them the tools to improve their business strategies.


Pros as well as cons of IoT:

Some of the advantages of IoT is as follows. They are,

  • The ability to access the information. This is from anywhere at any time on any device.
  • Improved communication between the connected electronic devices.
  • Transferring the data packets over a connected network. This will save the time as well as money.
  • Automating tasks helps improve the quality of a business’ services. Also, it will reduce the need for human intervention.

Some of the disadvantages of IoT is as follows. They are,

  • The number of the connected devices increases. Also, more information will share between the devices. The potential that a hacker could steal. The confidential information will also be increase.
  • Enterprises may eventually have to deal. This is with the massive numbers. This may be even millions of the IoT devices. Also, collecting as well as managing the data. This is from all those devices will be challenging.
  • If there’s a bug in the system? It’s likely that every connected device will become corrupted.
  • Since there is no international standard of the compatibility for IoT. It is difficult for the devices from different manufacturers. Especially, to communicate with each other.

The future of IoT:


There is no shortage of IoT market estimations. For example, a few will include the following. They are,

  • Bain & Company expects annual IoT revenue of hardware. Also, the software to exceed $450 billion by the year of 2020.
  • McKinsey & company estimates IoT will have an $11.1 trillion impact. This is by the year of 2025. 


  • IHS Markit believes the number of connected IoT devices will increase 12% annually. This is to reach 125 billion in the year of 2030.
  • Gartner assesses that 20.8 billion connected things will be in use by 2020. This is with total spend on IoT devices as well as services to reach $3.7 trillion. This will be in the year of 2018.
September 15, 2019
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