2020 Interview Questions for DevOps

1.Why do you need DevOps?
Now a days most of the companies are trying to release small set of features back to back rather than releasing big set. It has many advantages. They are as follows.
 Customers feedbacks are very quick.
 Software quality is much better.
As a result, the companies gain more satisfied customers. For this, companies must need the following. They are,
 Increase the frequencies od the deployments.
 Failure rate for the new releases are very low.
 It takes shortest time for fixing the bugs.
 In the case of crash during the release, release time is very fast.
All the above-mentioned requirements are fulfilled by the DevOps. Also, it is very helpful in seamless delivery of the software. For example: Before five years, Google, Etsy as well as Amazon are some of the companies which adopted the DevOps for achieving the level of performance. These companies are performing the deployment for a greater number of codes every day and deliver the output with stable, reliable as well as secure.
Answer :A software development with a set of principles and values is known as Agile. Let’s see with an example. Let us consider we are having some idea and we want to develop these ideas as software then we can use the principles as well as values of Agile. After development this software will only work on the laptop of the developers or only in the environment of the testing. If we want to move this software as a product in simple and safe manner, then we should use this DevOps tool.
Till now we have discussed about the development of the software. But in DevOps there is another responsibility. That is software deployment.
Answer :Following are some of the general logical flow. Using this we can automate everything for continuous delivery. Anyways these flows will vary for all the companies based on their needs.
 The code which are developed by the developers are managed with the help of VCS tools just like Git.
 The developed codes are then sent to Git repository after that the code which are made with the changes are committed with the repository.
 These codes from repository are pulled by Jenkins with the help of Git plugin. Then tools such as Ant / Maven are used to build the code.
 These codes deploy with the help of tools of configuration management such as Puppet and test environments is provided. Then the codes are released to the testing environment with the help of Jenkins. Then Selenium tool is used for testing the codes.
 Once the testing is completed, these codes are sent for deployment with the help of deployment on production server.
 Once this deployment is completed then the Nagios tool is used to monitor continuously.
 For testing the build feature Docker container provides the testing environment.
Answer :In general, many companies use DevOps. So, there are lot of use case available for you. Below is also the best example for DevOps use case.
An e-commerce website is Etsy. This website generally focuses on handmade / vintage items. This website struggles with very slow and often updates make this site down. It makes the sales down and so many users suffer from this.
They form a new technical team. They follow the waterfall model and they deploy the full site twice a week using Agile. Today this site is producing continuous delivery.
Answer :Following are some of the key aspects / principle of DevOps. They are,
 Codes are same as infrastructure.
 Integration is continuous.
 Deployment is continuous.
 Automations.
 Monitoring is continuous.
 Security.
Answer :
 All the member of the team can able to work freely with the help of version control systems. Later it will allow us for merging all changes in the common versions.
 All early variant and versions were packed in the VCS. Whenever we need it, we can able to get the snapshot of the required project using a request.
 Each time whenever we save the project it saves as a new version. But it requires a short description about the changes which we made.
 Distributed VCS allows all members of the team to have the full complete history about the project.
Answer :Following are some of the advanced DevOps tools which we worked on. They are,
 Docker.
 Gradle.
 Jenkins.
 Git.
 Bamboo.
 Kubernetes.
 Ansible.
 Puppet.
Answer :Before we going to the discussion about why DevOps is popular, we can see the current trend. Let’s see some big industries like Facebook as well as Netflix who currently working with DevOps for automating as well as accelerating the app deployment. Also, how it helps for their business growth. Let’s see with Facebook. It goes for continuous deployment as well as models helps to scale the quality of output. More than thousands of codes are implemented, and the output is with affecting the quality, security as well as stability.
Implementation of DevOps will vary from company to company. Nowadays all the industries look forward for software delivery as soon as possible. Now we see about how DevOps brings the effective communications between the stakeholders.
 Each and every company has their own aims and how DevOps implement in it. We need some changes to achieve it.
 Communication as well as collaboration between the development & operation are encouraging.
 The Key is the automation and we should perform it in the stages of SDLC for facilitate the DevOps working.
 First, we should integrate the tool which we are going to use in the DevOps.
 Without the CI as well as CD the DevOps implementation will not complete successfully.
 Operation team need to ensure whether the app works with required output else they are in the position to work with the development team to bring it. Also, they need to monitor it continuously.
 They need the feedback from the end user for further development.
Answer :The waterfall process follows a model in which there are some disadvantages.
1. In water fall model every step will be started once previous step is completed
2. The delivery time would be long since it depends on completion of all phases
3. In testing if some issues are found, it would be tough to go back and fix it immediately
4. Customer delivery will be there once all phases are completed. So, If it does not satisfy the customer, obviously it would be a failure model.
5. Customer will not have a chance to give feedback on development process since there won’t be a phased delivery.
All the above given shortcomings will not be there in Agile model. In agile model, the development will follow the phased delivery. Customer will have a chance to test the progress with phased approach. Also, in agile process, there will be progress in all work simultaneously. So, there is no need to wait for completion of previous step.
DevOps is very much relevant to agile process. In this process, the delivery will be on time. It includes more tasks automated. So, it ensures a smooth delivery.
Answer :We can design the Jenkins in two ways. They are,
 Web:
Hear we have a choice to design the framework. Using this we can able to make all the setup changes which is required.
 Manually on the filesystem:
Hear we have a category as Jenkins establishment. Under this we can find the document as Jenkins config.xml. We have to forward all the changes which is required to the document. Once we done this, we have to restart our Jenkins.
Answer :Following are some of the typical characters which is involved in the DevOps. They are,
 Commitment to supervisor level of the organization.
 Deliver the needed silver throughout the organization.
 Software for checking the Version.
 Automated tool for compliances to process.
 Testing Automation.
 Deploying Automation.
Answer :The connection of Agile between the development and operation team is known as DevOps. Any process which follows this is said to the design with production support. For understand the DevOps we need to understand the DevOps lifecycle.
We use a tool which is very essential for the DevOps workflow. The daily workflow allows the team to complete the work fast. Both the team make the work experiment in very good manner so that it is ready for the delivery as deliverable values.
Answer :Following are some of the DevOps core Operations. They are,
 Development of the App.
 Development of the code.
 Coverage of the code.
 Testing Unit.
 Packaging.
 Deploying with infrastructures.
 Provision.
 Configuring.
 Orchestration.
 Deploying.
Answer :Following are some of the advantages of the DevOps in technical aspect. They are,
 Continues software delivery.
 Austerity for low problems.
 Problem solving is fast.
 Human is falling.
Following are some of the advantages of the DevOps in business aspect. They are,
 High feature rate.
 Fixed OS.
 More time to add values.
 Fastest run time.
Answer :Consider there is a new software is in development.
1. There are multiple modules in software.
2. There are multiple teams working in software.
3. The changes done by one team might affect another module as well.
4. The changes done by each developer need to be tracked in a system.
5. The changes done by each developer needs review before submission.
All the above scenarios fit for perfect explanation of GIT and Gerrit. GIT and Gerrit are open source version control software and review software respectively.
1. GIT is used to maintain different modules of single software.
2. GIT can be integrated with other tools where build is automated.
3. GIT maintains different version of changes. So, if developer wants to revisit the changes, he or she can always do it.
4. Gerrit is a review software which is used for code review.
With all these advantages, GIT and Gerrit plays an important role in software development.
Answer :Yes, I have experience in product deployment. Following are the steps to be followed for Devops based product deployment.
Step #1: Planning: In this phase, a detailed plan will be prepared. The plan will explain how much time will take for completion of deployment based on previous experience.
Step #2: Environment preparation: In this phase, the system details and technology to be followed will be decided.
Step #3: How to group or prepare a cluster of systems: In this phase, if there are multiple systems, we need to prepare a plan what are all those systems.
Step #4: Connecting the cluster: In this step, we need to study how these cluster will be interconnected. It will help to prepare the delivery plan in a clean manner.
Step #5: Prepare a document to add all the above steps. It would be easy for other who will follow this deployment activity. The document should be foolproof.
Step #6: The document should contain all configuration of involved systems, their ip address, how to access the system. Mainly it should contain the steps to be followed for installation of software.
Step #7: Keep update the documentation. It should contain all recent updates.
Answer :
• Docker containers are required when you need a process with all dependencies resolved.
• Docker will help sharing the kernel with other containers.
• Docker container include all required dependent plugins or other related software to run the application.
• Docker don’t have any infrastructure requirement. It can be run in a cloud environment as well.
So, when you require an application with all its dependent stuffs, we can go for docker. It is really powerful and make the day of developers very easy.
Answer :
DevOps is powerful technology not only for development. It is perfect suit for testing project as well. Following are the steps to be followed for testing projects if they adapt DevOps.
1. Develop the test scripts or software changes
2. Submit the changes (or scripts) in to version control system such as GIT
3. Use a continuous integration tool such as Jenkins to schedule a batch run.
4. Pull all the changes from repository (using GIT) and schedule a regular batch run with Jenkins.
5. Once Jenkins batch run is passed, deploy the changes using software like selenium.
Answer :If I am in a DevOps engineer, I will be able to change the existing system in to a strong and adapted to quality delivery. I can contribute to following
1. Bridge between development activities and operation activities.
2. Understand the product better and to plan for phased delivery.
3. Understand the customer requirement clearly and to deliver using continuous deployment.
4. Making the developers job easy and quality delivery using continues integration methods.
December 20, 2019
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